Homeowners still have considerable advantages from the amortization of the mortgage and the appreciation enjoyed by most homes even with taking the standard deduction instead of itemizing to take the interest and property tax deduction.
There is an adage, "Rent or buy, you pay for the house you occupy." You either pay for it yourself or for your landlord. The people who have job security, sufficient income, good credit and the funds for the down payment and closing costs can enjoy the many financial and emotional benefits of homeownership.
Looking at a $350,000 home purchased with an FHA mortgage with 3.5% down payment at 3.25% interest for 30-years, the total payment would be $2,420 a month. During the first year, the average monthly principal reduction is $573 a month which build the owner's equity in the home.
At an estimated 3% appreciation, this home would increase in value at the rate of $875 a month during the first year which again builds the owner's equity in the home.
Even if you consider the buyer will now be responsible for repairs and possibly homeowner's association fees, the monthly net cost of housing in this example is $1,122 or less than half the monthly payment. The difference goes to equity which a tenant does not benefit from.
If the buyer were paying $2,750 monthly rent, they would be paying $1,628 more each month to rent than to own. In a year's time, they would lose $19,500 of equity by continuing to rent. The down payment in this example is only $12,250 which would leave $7,000 to pay for buyer's closing costs.
Total Monthly Payment (PITI + MIP)
Less Monthly Principal Reduction (average first year)
Less Monthly Appreciation (average first year at 3% annually)
Plus Estimated Maintenance & HOA
Net Cost of Housing
The equity for the homeowner in this example at the end of seven years would be almost $140,000 based on the appreciation and amortization of the mortgage. Whether you rent or buy, you pay for the house you occupy.
Use this Rent vs. Own to plug in your own numbers for the price home you'd like to buy. If you need help with it, contact me and we can do it over the phone at or in an online meeting.
Homeownership is a privilege and a responsibility. Even after decades of owning a home, you may still need some help to handle some of its challenges by focusing on the three "M"s of homeownership: maintenance, minimizing expenses and managing debt and risk.
While many people recognize the benefits of annual wellness, financial, vehicle and equipment maintenance visits, an important checkup that you may not have considered is an annual homeowner advisory or real estate review. Why would you treat the investment in your home with less care than you treat your car or your HVAC system?
Consider exploring the following:
This service is part of my point of difference as a real estate professional to provide information to help homeowners not only when they buy and sell but all the years in between too. My goal is to create lifelong relationships with our customers as their "go to" person whenever they have a real estate question.
My strategy is to provide reliable, consumer-based information about homeownership on a regular basis through email and social networking. If it benefits you by helping you be a better homeowner, maybe you'll consider us your real estate professional.
When you don't know the answers to real estate questions, you know where to get them.
We're always here to serve your real estate needs. By helping you with the three "M"s of homeownership, we can earn your confidence and trust for the next time you move or a friend of yours needs a recommendation.
If you'd like to have a list of the market activity in your area or any of the other information mentioned, please contact me at or RhodesToKona@gmail.com. We're happy to provide it along with informative guides regarding the subjects mentioned.
Homeowners receive a generous exclusion on the gain of their principal residence up to $250,000 for single taxpayers and $500,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly. Most people probably consider the gain or profit in a home to be the difference between the purchase price and the sales price.
IRS allows a taxpayer to lower the sales price by the selling expenses before calculating gain. Normal expenses like real estate commission, title policy, attorney fees, and other sales expenses may be included if they are normal and customary.
Another significant adjustment is that capital improvements made during the holding period can be added to the cost basis. Normal maintenance like repairs are not considered improvements. IRS says that if the expenditure materially adds value (features) to the property, or appreciably prolongs the useful life of the property, or adapts a portion of the property to a new use, it can be considered a capital improvement.
Examples could include replacing a heating or air conditioning system, storm windows, new permanent landscaping like trees or shrubs or completing an unfinished basement. They don't necessarily have to be high-ticket items but can include things like adding dead bolts, ceiling fans, video doorbell and other items. For more information, see IRS Publication 523.
The total amount of the money that is spent on capital improvements increase the cost basis of the home which in turn will reduce the amount of gain when sold. With the average person staying in a home for 10 ... 12 years, the total improvements could be significant.
As an example, let's say a single taxpayer sold their home for $350,000 more than they paid for it. If their selling expenses were $25,000 and they had made $75,000 of capital improvements during the holding period, the gain would be $250,000 and within the limits for a single taxpayer to exclude all of it instead of having a $100,000 gain.
It is necessary to be able to prove the amount spent and for that reason, a routine should be established to keep the receipts and cancelled checks for all expenditures on their principal residence. Even if the owner is not sure whether they qualify as an improvement, by having the receipt available at the time of sale, a tax professional can help a homeowner with the determination.
In addition to receipts and cancelled checks, a contemporaneous register listing the date, description and amount spent will provide accurate information for calculations and serve as evidence should it be needed in the future.
There is more information in the Homeowners Tax Guide that is available for download.
The convenience of selling your home without the hassle of getting it ready, putting it on the market, showings, open houses, negotiations and repairs comes at a cost ... a significant part of your equity.
The companies, referred to as iBuyers, that buy homes from sellers are for-profit organizations. They expect to make a profit from sellers who are willing to discount the proceeds they'll realize as an alternative to the conventional method of selling a home for people who need a quick sale.
The promotions for these companies generally state that you can receive a cash offer in a few minutes after putting your address online. The discount can be between 10 to 18% compared to normal selling costs from 6 to 9%. The cost to a person with a $100,000 equity could be as much as ten thousand dollars.
Even after you have accepted an offer, there can be contingencies in the contract that allow the company to inspect the home to discover the condition and reassess the offer to possibly make even more deductions. If the seller isn't willing to accept them, the buyer can withdraw from the sale without penalty.
This appears on the surface to be a friendly, accommodating service but it can be an adversarial situation. The seller wants to maximize their proceeds and the buyer wants to buy it as cheap as possible.
Compare this to working directly with a real estate professional acting as your agent. They have to put your interests above their own. They have a fiduciary duty of care, integrity, honesty and loyalty in their dealings with you. Other duties include confidentiality, disclosure, obedience and accounting to the seller.
In this traditional model, your agent will provide you with the facts of what homes have sold for in the area and their opinion and recommendations on what the most likely sales price will be. Your agent will provide you an estimate of the sales expenses based on different sales possibilities.
They can advise you on work to be done prior to putting the home on the market, staging so your home will show at its best and estimate the time it will be on the market. Based on low inventories in some price ranges, it could be surprisingly short.
As an owner, you made an investment in your home in cash and maintenance. You are entitled to maximize your proceeds based on the risk taken to purchase a home instead of renting. The convenience of a quick offer has a cost to it. You need to compare the two alternatives to see which one benefits you the most based on your individual situation.
For more information, download the Sellers Guide.
The deadline for challenging your property tax assessment this year may be later than normal due to the stay at home orders but when you are notified, you'll want to be ready to decide whether you can save some money on property taxes this year.
There are two elements that determine the amount of property taxes you'll pay for the year: the assessment of value and the property tax rate. Both determinations occur long before the property tax statement is sent.
Property owners are notified in writing what their assessed value is for the year. It is estimated that most owners don't challenge that value even though it could lower their tax bill. Not all appeals are successful, but many homeowners believe that it is worth the effort to try. Procedures for challenging the assessment are generally included with the letter and a deadline for filing the challenge.
An initial step is to determine the accuracy of the information on your property's record such as market value and square footage. If the record shows a higher square footage than actual, it can cause the value to be higher than it should be. Even though it may not be required, an appraisal could be proof of actual square footage that shows the square footage and value by an independent party.
Recent comparable sales are used by assessors to determine market value of a property but are usually not identified in the property record. Property owners can research comparable sales that indicate a lower value and submit them to the assessor's office either informally or in a challenge hearing.
It is important that the properties proposed to establish the value of the subject property are recent, comparable in size, condition, amenities and in the same area.
There are companies who will represent the owner to lower their assessment. The fee charged is usually a percentage of the taxes that are saved. It is not a complicated procedure and can be very gratifying to make the effort.
Your real estate professional can be a valuable source of information and experience to guide you through the process. Call me at for more information and a list of comparable sales.
Taking cash out of the equity of your home could be a legitimate way to fund a temporary cash crisis now or to have it on-hand if the need arises. Most homeowners can pull out the difference in 80% of the fair market value of their home and what they currently owe.
The most frequently cited reasons for refinancing are to lower the payment, eliminate the private mortgage insurance, combine mortgages, consolidate debt, convert an ARM to a fixed rate mortgage, remove a person from the loan or to take cash out for another reason.
The option of using your equity to deal with unexpected living expenses or potential lost wages in the future could be a good reason for doing a cash-out refinance. It is important to consider that it could increase your monthly payment instead of lowering it which would result in higher expenses during uncertain economic times.
Some lenders have recently raised the minimum credit score requirement but borrowers with good credit and the ability to repay should be able to refinance. Lenders are reporting that during the Covid-19 crisis their processing time is taking longer but they have implemented procedures to safely facilitate the application as well as the appraisals.
While homeowners with an FHA loan are available for a streamline process because FHA is already insuring the mortgage to be refinanced, the cash-out is limited to $500. Even though the owner may not be able to pull funds out of their FHA equity, refinancing may lower their payment and therefore, lower their expenses.
Unlike conventional loans that require income through a job or other sources, refinancing an existing FHA loan does not require income verification or an appraisal. The borrower cannot be delinquent on their current FHA loan and it must be at least six months old. The refinance must reduce the current interest rate or term or both.
Another alternative for homeowners is a HELOC, home equity line of credit, where you do not incur interest expense unless you actually draw on the line of credit. It will be a variable rate home equity loan similar to a credit card letting you borrow up to a specific limit when you want and repay it slowly over time.
Refinancing a home incurs closing costs which can be paid in cash or added to the financed amount. The breakeven point to recapture the cost of refinancing is determined by dividing the monthly savings into the cost of refinancing. If you stay in the home less than that time, refinancing could be an unnecessary expense.
Everyone knows someone it has happened to or has heard a tragic story. It could have been a fire, a flood, a burglary or some other disaster but to file a claim on their insurance, they need the receipts or a list for what is being claimed.
Since you're at home anyway and may even have kids at home who need something to do, now is a great time to get a current home inventory done. One of the easiest ways to accomplish this seemingly, daunting task is to put together a collection of pictures of every room in your home.
The more valuable, the more important it is to take a close-up picture. It will be necessary to open the drawers and closets and, in some cases, to pull things out in order to show everything in the picture. That's why having someone to help you makes it faster and easier.
Not to get distracted from the job at hand, you may discover things that you had forgotten you had which is why you should do an inventory rather than trying to reconstruct it after the loss. In some cases, it may be years after you've filed a claim when you remember you forgot some things.
Having photos or videos of the different rooms in your house combined with a list of the items can serve as the proof you need for your claim.
There are other benefits to doing a home inventory also. You'll know the "right" amount of insurance to have on your personal belongings by assigning replacement costs to them. It will simplify filing a claim if you ever need to.
To organize your photos and even provide a detailed list of higher value items, you can download a Home Inventory in an interactive PDF that you can complete. You can put it together on your computer and store it online to make it available if the computer is stolen or damaged.
A well-planned garage or yard sale can give you extra space in your home, get rid of unused items and make some money but it needs some of the same considerations that any business needs to be successful.
Recognize that the first day of the sale will have the most people. Everyone will be looking for a bargain but some of them actually want to purchase things for them to resell at their own sales.
Advertise in local newspapers and free online classified sites like Craigslist. If several families are going together for the sale, mention that in the ad; it will be a big draw. Mention your bigger-ticket items like furniture, equipment and baby items.
Garage sale signs can be purchased or you could have them made at Office Depot or FedEx Office. Signs need large lettering so they're easy to read without too many words on them. Remember that people will be driving when they see them. Most important info: Garage or Yard Sale, address, date and time. Directional signs are also important along with balloons and streamers to attract attention.
Consider using the service Square so that you can take credit cards. The cost is 2.6% + 10¢ per swipe and you can do it on your smartphone or iPad. You'll need to sign up at least two weeks in advance to receive your reader.
You will be amazed at what sells and what doesn't. If your goal is to get rid of some things regardless, put those items in the sale and at the end of the sale, donate what you can to Goodwill and the balance goes to the dump. If you can't bear to do that, box them up and try again next year or possibly, at one of your neighbors' sales.
Other supplies you'll need will be:
Unless you're having an estate sale, keep your home locked. You don't want people wandering through your home while you're outside. If you start to accumulate a lot of money, take some of it inside. Don't discuss how much money you've made during the sale or how successful it has been.
People will want to bargain; it's the nature of the game. Consider this strategy: less negotiations early in the sale and possibly, more toward the end of the sale.
It is the way the property is used that determines the type of property it is, not what it looks like. Based on the intent of the owner, the property could be a principal residence, income property, investment property or dealer property.
A principal residence is a home that a person lives in. There can be only one declared principal residence. It is afforded certain benefits like deducting the interest and property taxes on a taxpayers' itemized deductions, up to limits. Up to $250,000 of gain for a single taxpayer and up to $500,000 for a married couple filing jointly can be excluded from income if the property is owned and used as a principal residence for two out of the previous five years.
An income property is an improved property that is rented for more than 12 months. The improvements can be depreciated based on a 27.5-year life for residential property or 39-years for commercial property. This is a non-cash deduction that shelters income. When the property is sold, the cost recovery is recaptured at a 25% tax rate.
An investment property could be an improved property or vacant land that does not produce income and is not eligible for depreciation or cost recovery. The gain on both income and investment properties are taxed at a lower, long-term capital gain rate and are eligible for a tax deferred exchange.
Second homes are properties that a taxpayer primarily uses for personal enjoyment but is not their principal residence. For IRS purposes, it is treated as an investment property in that the gain is taxed at preferential long-term rates if it is held for more than 12 months. However, it is not eligible for exchanges because personal use properties are excluded from that benefit.
Properties that are built or bought to make a profit are considered inventory and are labeled dealer properties. The gain is taxed at ordinary income rates and they are not eligible for section 1031 deferred exchanges.
The financing available differs considerably based on the intent of the owner which determines the type of property. Owner-occupied homes, used as a principal residence, are eligible for low down payment mortgages like VA, FHA, USDA and conventional ranging from nothing down to 20%.
A second home, in most cases, requires a minimum of 10% down payment. Investment and Income properties, generally, require 20% or more in down payment with some possible exceptions. There is not any long-term financing available for dealer property.
Home improvement loans provide a source of funds for owners to finance the improvements they want to make. These are usually, personal installment loans that are not collateralized by the home itself. Since there is more risk for the lender with this type of loan, the interest rate is higher than a normal mortgage loan.
In today's market, the rates on home improvement loans could vary between 6% and 36%. A borrower's credit score will determine the interest rate; the lower the score, the higher the rate and the higher the score, the lower the rate.
Smaller loan amounts are under $40,000 with larger loan amounts over $40,000 based on the extent of the improvements to be made. With all things being equal, a larger loan may have a lower interest rate.
Besides the interest rate being higher than a regular mortgage, the term is shorter. Similar to a car loan, the term can be between five and seven years. A $50,000 home improvement loan for a borrower, with good but not great credit, could have a 12% interest rate for seven years. That would make the monthly payment $882.64.
An alternative way to fund the improvements would be to do a cash out refinance. These types of loans are collateralized by the home. The current mortgage would be paid off with the new mortgage plus the amount for the improvements. Lenders will usually require that the owner maintain a minimum of 20% equity in the home.
Assuming a homeowner owed $230,000 on the existing mortgage and wanted $50,000 for improvements. The new loan amount would be $280,000 and the home would have to appraise for at least $350,000 for the homeowner to have a 20% equity remaining.
Another thing that occurs on a refinance is that the standard term for mortgages is 30 years which means the owner would be financing the improvements for 30 years instead of a shorter term. The advantage would be a smaller payment.
Let's say in this example, the owner originally borrowed $250,000 at 4.5% for 30 years with a payment of $1,266.71. After 54 payments, the unpaid balance is $230,335. If they did a cash out refinance at 4.5% for 30 years for the additional $50,000 and financed the estimated closing costs of $8,700, the new payment would be $1,464.50.
Using the home improvement loan, the combined payments would be $2,149.35 which would be $684.85 higher. While the cash out refinance produces a lower payment, it adds $8,700 to the amount owed and stretches it out over a longer period. Home improvement loans have lower closing costs than regular mortgage loans.
Another alternative loan is a HELOC or Home Equity Line of Credit which can be explored and compared to the two options mentioned above. If a homeowner is going to finance improvements, a comparison of different types of loans and payments can be helpful in the decision-making process.
A trusted mortgage professional is a valuable resource to assist you with current and accurate information. If you need a recommendation, please call me at .
Read helpful articles and real estate resources shared on behalf Realtor® Broker, BIC Jennifer R. Rhodes of Premier Island Properties LLC