Homeowners receive a generous exclusion on the gain of their principal residence up to $250,000 for single taxpayers and $500,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly. Most people probably consider the gain or profit in a home to be the difference between the purchase price and the sales price.
IRS allows a taxpayer to lower the sales price by the selling expenses before calculating gain. Normal expenses like real estate commission, title policy, attorney fees, and other sales expenses may be included if they are normal and customary.
Another significant adjustment is that capital improvements made during the holding period can be added to the cost basis. Normal maintenance like repairs are not considered improvements. IRS says that if the expenditure materially adds value (features) to the property, or appreciably prolongs the useful life of the property, or adapts a portion of the property to a new use, it can be considered a capital improvement.
Examples could include replacing a heating or air conditioning system, storm windows, new permanent landscaping like trees or shrubs or completing an unfinished basement. They don't necessarily have to be high-ticket items but can include things like adding dead bolts, ceiling fans, video doorbell and other items. For more information, see IRS Publication 523.
The total amount of the money that is spent on capital improvements increase the cost basis of the home which in turn will reduce the amount of gain when sold. With the average person staying in a home for 10 ... 12 years, the total improvements could be significant.
As an example, let's say a single taxpayer sold their home for $350,000 more than they paid for it. If their selling expenses were $25,000 and they had made $75,000 of capital improvements during the holding period, the gain would be $250,000 and within the limits for a single taxpayer to exclude all of it instead of having a $100,000 gain.
It is necessary to be able to prove the amount spent and for that reason, a routine should be established to keep the receipts and cancelled checks for all expenditures on their principal residence. Even if the owner is not sure whether they qualify as an improvement, by having the receipt available at the time of sale, a tax professional can help a homeowner with the determination.
In addition to receipts and cancelled checks, a contemporaneous register listing the date, description and amount spent will provide accurate information for calculations and serve as evidence should it be needed in the future.
There is more information in the Homeowners Tax Guide that is available for download.
Everyone knows someone it has happened to or has heard a tragic story. It could have been a fire, a flood, a burglary or some other disaster but to file a claim on their insurance, they need the receipts or a list for what is being claimed.
Since you're at home anyway and may even have kids at home who need something to do, now is a great time to get a current home inventory done. One of the easiest ways to accomplish this seemingly, daunting task is to put together a collection of pictures of every room in your home.
The more valuable, the more important it is to take a close-up picture. It will be necessary to open the drawers and closets and, in some cases, to pull things out in order to show everything in the picture. That's why having someone to help you makes it faster and easier.
Not to get distracted from the job at hand, you may discover things that you had forgotten you had which is why you should do an inventory rather than trying to reconstruct it after the loss. In some cases, it may be years after you've filed a claim when you remember you forgot some things.
Having photos or videos of the different rooms in your house combined with a list of the items can serve as the proof you need for your claim.
There are other benefits to doing a home inventory also. You'll know the "right" amount of insurance to have on your personal belongings by assigning replacement costs to them. It will simplify filing a claim if you ever need to.
To organize your photos and even provide a detailed list of higher value items, you can download a Home Inventory in an interactive PDF that you can complete. You can put it together on your computer and store it online to make it available if the computer is stolen or damaged.
A well-planned garage or yard sale can give you extra space in your home, get rid of unused items and make some money but it needs some of the same considerations that any business needs to be successful.
Recognize that the first day of the sale will have the most people. Everyone will be looking for a bargain but some of them actually want to purchase things for them to resell at their own sales.
Advertise in local newspapers and free online classified sites like Craigslist. If several families are going together for the sale, mention that in the ad; it will be a big draw. Mention your bigger-ticket items like furniture, equipment and baby items.
Garage sale signs can be purchased or you could have them made at Office Depot or FedEx Office. Signs need large lettering so they're easy to read without too many words on them. Remember that people will be driving when they see them. Most important info: Garage or Yard Sale, address, date and time. Directional signs are also important along with balloons and streamers to attract attention.
Consider using the service Square so that you can take credit cards. The cost is 2.6% + 10¢ per swipe and you can do it on your smartphone or iPad. You'll need to sign up at least two weeks in advance to receive your reader.
You will be amazed at what sells and what doesn't. If your goal is to get rid of some things regardless, put those items in the sale and at the end of the sale, donate what you can to Goodwill and the balance goes to the dump. If you can't bear to do that, box them up and try again next year or possibly, at one of your neighbors' sales.
Other supplies you'll need will be:
Unless you're having an estate sale, keep your home locked. You don't want people wandering through your home while you're outside. If you start to accumulate a lot of money, take some of it inside. Don't discuss how much money you've made during the sale or how successful it has been.
People will want to bargain; it's the nature of the game. Consider this strategy: less negotiations early in the sale and possibly, more toward the end of the sale.
Home improvement loans provide a source of funds for owners to finance the improvements they want to make. These are usually, personal installment loans that are not collateralized by the home itself. Since there is more risk for the lender with this type of loan, the interest rate is higher than a normal mortgage loan.
In today's market, the rates on home improvement loans could vary between 6% and 36%. A borrower's credit score will determine the interest rate; the lower the score, the higher the rate and the higher the score, the lower the rate.
Smaller loan amounts are under $40,000 with larger loan amounts over $40,000 based on the extent of the improvements to be made. With all things being equal, a larger loan may have a lower interest rate.
Besides the interest rate being higher than a regular mortgage, the term is shorter. Similar to a car loan, the term can be between five and seven years. A $50,000 home improvement loan for a borrower, with good but not great credit, could have a 12% interest rate for seven years. That would make the monthly payment $882.64.
An alternative way to fund the improvements would be to do a cash out refinance. These types of loans are collateralized by the home. The current mortgage would be paid off with the new mortgage plus the amount for the improvements. Lenders will usually require that the owner maintain a minimum of 20% equity in the home.
Assuming a homeowner owed $230,000 on the existing mortgage and wanted $50,000 for improvements. The new loan amount would be $280,000 and the home would have to appraise for at least $350,000 for the homeowner to have a 20% equity remaining.
Another thing that occurs on a refinance is that the standard term for mortgages is 30 years which means the owner would be financing the improvements for 30 years instead of a shorter term. The advantage would be a smaller payment.
Let's say in this example, the owner originally borrowed $250,000 at 4.5% for 30 years with a payment of $1,266.71. After 54 payments, the unpaid balance is $230,335. If they did a cash out refinance at 4.5% for 30 years for the additional $50,000 and financed the estimated closing costs of $8,700, the new payment would be $1,464.50.
Using the home improvement loan, the combined payments would be $2,149.35 which would be $684.85 higher. While the cash out refinance produces a lower payment, it adds $8,700 to the amount owed and stretches it out over a longer period. Home improvement loans have lower closing costs than regular mortgage loans.
Another alternative loan is a HELOC or Home Equity Line of Credit which can be explored and compared to the two options mentioned above. If a homeowner is going to finance improvements, a comparison of different types of loans and payments can be helpful in the decision-making process.
A trusted mortgage professional is a valuable resource to assist you with current and accurate information. If you need a recommendation, please call me at .
Whether it is a cosmetic or a mechanical reason for upgrading a toilet, you may not know all the choices that are involved to choose the right one for your home. The current toilet may have cracks or leaks in the bowl or tank. It could be the aggravation of constant clogging or inefficient flushing. Maybe there is damage in the porcelain bowl or built-up mineral deposits that are clogging the inlet holes or syphon tube.
If frequent repairs have you on a first name basis with the plumber, it may be time to consider replacing the toilet. There are a lot of things to consider and the following list may help you sort through the choices.
Once you've decided on what features are important, you can shop brands that fit your needs. If you're curious to what kind of a job it is to install it, there are lots of videos on YouTube that will show you in detail what to expect. Whether you do it yourself or hire a professional, you'll understand the process more
Condensation occurs when the air has too much moisture in it which is felt as high humidity. The water deposits on various surfaces that are cooler than the air itself. Several things can contribute to the high humidity such as cooking, dishwashers, clothes dryers, bathing and long showers.
If the home has a crawl space under the floor, inadequate ventilation or insulation can cause moisture in the home. There seems to be a difference of opinions about whether to vent or not vent. First, determine if you are having a problem and then, weigh the options available to find the best solution.
Condensation that forms on windows and other surfaces in your home can cause damage to window trim, frames, drywall, floor coverings and sub-floors as well and the interior framing.
To reduce condensation in a home, the moisture saturating the air needs to be reduced. Just as steam from a shower can fog a mirror, warm air holds more moisture. When the air cools, it releases the moisture. There are other things that can be done to reduce the moisture and the condensation.
Regulating the humidity in a home can protect against damage but it also promotes comfort in the form of breathing, relieving dry skin, sinus problems and sickness in general. Breathing is easier and the air feels more pleasant.
Read helpful articles and real estate resources shared on behalf Realtor® Broker, BIC Jennifer R. Rhodes of Premier Island Properties LLC